How Do Cities Feel?

If you are lost and feel alone, circumnavigate the globe (For You, Coldplay)

You can not consider yourself a R-blogger until you do an analysis of Twitter using `twitteR `package. Everybody knows it. So here I go.

Inspired by the fabulous work of Jonathan Harris I decided to compare human emotions of people living (or twittering in this case) in different cities. My plan was analysing tweets generated in different locations of USA and UK with one thing in common: all of them must contain the string “I FEEL”. These are the main steps I followed:

• Locate cities I want to analyze using world cities database of `maps` package
• Download tweets around these locations using `searchTwitter` function of `twitteR` package.
• Cross tweets with positive and negative lists of words and calculate a simple scoring for each tweet as number of positive words – number of negative words
• Calculate how many tweets have non-zero scoring; since these tweets put into words some emotion I call them sentimental tweets
• Represent cities in a bubble chart where x-axis is percentage of sentimental tweets, y-axis is average scoring and size of bubble is population

This is the result of my experiment:

These are my conclusions (please, do not take it seriously):

• USA cities seem to have better vibrations and are more sentimental than UK ones
• Capital city is the happiest one for both countries
• San Francisco (USA) is the most sentimental city of the analysis; on the other hand, Liverpool (UK) is the coldest one
• The more sentimental, the better vibrations

From my point of view, this analysis has some important limitations:

• It strongly depends on particular events (i.e. local football team wins the championship)
• I have no idea of what kind of people is behind tweets
• According to my experience, `searchTwitter `only works well for a small number of searches (no more than 300); for larger number of tweets to return, it use to give malformed JSON response error from server

Anyway, I hope it will serve as starting point of some other analysis in the future. At least, I learned interesting things about R doing it.

Here you have the code:

```library(twitteR)
library(RCurl)
library(maps)
library(plyr)
library(stringr)
library(bitops)
library(scales)
#Register
if (!file.exists('cacert.perm'))
{
}
consumerKey = "YOUR CONSUMER KEY HERE"
consumerSecret = "YOUR CONSUMER SECRET HERE"
Cred <- OAuthFactory\$new(consumerKey=consumerKey,
consumerSecret=consumerSecret,
requestURL=requestURL,
accessURL=accessURL,
authURL=authURL)
Cred\$handshake(cainfo=system.file("CurlSSL", "cacert.pem", package="RCurl"))
#Save credentials
options(RCurlOptions = list(cainfo = system.file("CurlSSL", "cacert.pem", package = "RCurl")))
#Cities to analyze
cities=data.frame(
CITY=c('Edinburgh', 'London', 'Glasgow', 'Birmingham', 'Liverpool', 'Manchester',
'New York', 'Washington', 'Las Vegas', 'San Francisco', 'Chicago','Los Angeles'),
COUNTRY=c("UK", "UK", "UK", "UK", "UK", "UK", "USA", "USA", "USA", "USA", "USA", "USA"))
data(world.cities)
cities2=world.cities[which(!is.na(match(
str_trim(paste(world.cities\$name, world.cities\$country.etc, sep=",")),
str_trim(paste(cities\$CITY, cities\$COUNTRY, sep=","))
))),]
cities2\$SEARCH=paste(cities2\$lat, cities2\$long, "10mi", sep = ",")
cities2\$CITY=cities2\$name
tweets=data.frame()
for (i in 1:nrow(cities2))
{
tweets=rbind(merge(cities[i,], twListToDF(tw),all=TRUE), tweets)
}
#Save tweets
write.csv(tweets, file="tweets.csv", row.names=FALSE)
#Import csv file
hu.liu.pos = scan('lexicon/positive-words.txt',  what='character', comment.char=';')
hu.liu.neg = scan('lexicon/negative-words.txt',  what='character', comment.char=';')
#Function to clean and score tweets
score.sentiment=function(sentences, pos.words, neg.words, .progress='none')
{
require(plyr)
require(stringr)
scores=laply(sentences, function(sentence, pos.word, neg.words) {
sentence=gsub('[[:punct:]]','',sentence)
sentence=gsub('[[:cntrl:]]','',sentence)
sentence=gsub('\\d+','',sentence)
sentence=tolower(sentence)
word.list=str_split(sentence, '\\s+')
words=unlist(word.list)
pos.matches=match(words, pos.words)
neg.matches=match(words, neg.words)
pos.matches=!is.na(pos.matches)
neg.matches=!is.na(neg.matches)
score=sum(pos.matches) - sum(neg.matches)
return(score)
}, pos.words, neg.words, .progress=.progress)
scores.df=data.frame(score=scores, text=sentences)
return(scores.df)
}
cities.scores=score.sentiment(city.tweets[1:nrow(city.tweets),], hu.liu.pos, hu.liu.neg, .progress='text')
cities.scores\$pos2=apply(cities.scores, 1, function(x) regexpr(",",x[2])[1]-1)
cities.scores\$CITY=apply(cities.scores, 1, function(x) substr(x[2], 1, x[3]))
cities.scores=merge(x=cities.scores, y=cities, by='CITY')
df1=aggregate(cities.scores["score"], by=cities.scores[c("CITY")], FUN=length)
names(df1)=c("CITY", "TWEETS")
cities.scores2=cities.scores[abs(cities.scores\$score)>0,]
df2=aggregate(cities.scores2["score"], by=cities.scores2[c("CITY")], FUN=length)
names(df2)=c("CITY", "TWEETS.SENT")
df3=aggregate(cities.scores2["score"], by=cities.scores2[c("CITY")], FUN=mean)
names(df3)=c("CITY", "TWEETS.SENT.SCORING")
#Data frame with results
df.result=join_all(list(df1,df2,df3,cities2), by = 'CITY', type='full')
#Plot results
inches=0.85, fg="white", bg="gold", xlab="Sentimental Tweets", ylab="Scoring Of Sentimental Tweets (Average)",
main="How Do Cities Feel?")
text(100*df.result\$TWEETS.SENT/df.result\$TWEETS, df.result\$TWEETS.SENT.SCORING, paste(df.result\$CITY, df.result\$country.etc, sep="-"), cex=1, col="gray50")
```

14 thoughts on “How Do Cities Feel?”

1. Thanks for the great post, truly interesting.

I’m afraid I run into some the re-occuring and sometimes mysterious: “arguments imply differing number of rows” error after runing jeffrey’s sentiment scoring algorithm – cities.scores=score.sentiment(city.tweets[1:nrow(city.tweets),], …

Now here I might say something stupid, please excuse me I only know so much about R.

I can understand differing number of rows being a problem when merging data.frames (rbind, cbind) but not in this case; I have different number of tweets for each city, so what?

1. aschinchon says:

I am not sure why but I suspect it has to do with that [1:nrow(city.tweets),].

Anyways, thanks very much for your time, you will find the code below.

> libs lapply(libs, require, character.only=TRUE)

Attaching package: ‘plyr’

id

[[1]]
[1] TRUE

[[2]]
[1] TRUE

[[3]]
[1] TRUE

[[4]]
[1] TRUE

[[5]]
[1] TRUE

[[6]]
[1] TRUE

[[7]]
[1] TRUE

>
> #set working directory
> setwd (“D:/Social Media Analysis/Cities”)
>
> # I use the updated Twitter package from Github
+ “Access Secret”)
[1] “Using direct authentication”
>
> options(RCurlOptions = list(cainfo = system.file(“CurlSSL”, “cacert.pem”, package = “RCurl”)))
>
> #Cities to analyze
> cities=data.frame(
+ CITY=c(‘Edinburgh’, ‘London’, ‘Glasgow’, ‘Birmingham’, ‘Liverpool’, ‘Manchester’,
+ ‘New York’, ‘Washington’, ‘Las Vegas’, ‘San Francisco’, ‘Chicago’,’Los Angeles’),
+ COUNTRY=c(“UK”, “UK”, “UK”, “UK”, “UK”, “UK”, “USA”, “USA”, “USA”, “USA”, “USA”, “USA”))
> data(world.cities)
> cities2=world.cities[which(!is.na(match(
+ str_trim(paste(world.cities\$name, world.cities\$country.etc, sep=”,”)),
+ str_trim(paste(cities\$CITY, cities\$COUNTRY, sep=”,”))
+ ))),]
> cities2\$SEARCH=paste(cities2\$lat, cities2\$long, “10mi”, sep = “,”)
> cities2\$CITY=cities2\$name
> tweets=data.frame()
> for (i in 1:nrow(cities2))
+ {
+ tweets=rbind(merge(cities[i,], twListToDF(tw),all=TRUE), tweets)
+ }
>
> #Save tweets
> write.csv(tweets, file=”tweets.csv”, row.names=FALSE)
>
> #Import csv file
>
> hu.liu.pos = scan(‘positive-words.txt’, what=’character’, comment.char=’;’)
> hu.liu.neg = scan(‘negative-words.txt’, what=’character’, comment.char=’;’)
>
> #source sentiment algorithm – (https://github.com/jeffreybreen/twitter-sentiment-
> #analysis-tutorial-201107/tree/master/R)
> source(“Sentiment.R”)
> cities.scores=score.sentiment(city.tweets[1:nrow(city.tweets),], hu.liu.pos, hu.liu.neg, .progress=’text’)
|=======================================================================================| 100%
Error in data.frame(score = scores, text = sentences) :
arguments imply differing number of rows: 18, 4800
Called from: top level

Traceback points to this line in the Sentiment.R file:
scores.df = data.frame(score=scores, text=sentences)

1. aschinchon says:

Have you tried to clean the csv file. Sort it and remove blank lines (I found some of them). Maybe it will work then

2. Mubashir Qasim says:

Hi there, I am new to R. I am getting

Error: Unauthorized

after the following line:

Cred\$handshake(cainfo=system.file(“CurlSSL”, “cacert.pem”, package=”RCurl”))

I think this is because of:

consumerKey = “YOUR CONSUMER KEY HERE”
consumerSecret = “YOUR CONSUMER SECRET HERE”

May I ask what does consumerKey and ConsumerSecret referring to?

1. Mubashir Qasim says:

Thanks Antonio, that works… Thanks my friend…

3. I managed to fix it with some horrendous code of mine, thanks for your help 🙂

1. manasi says:

i am also having the same error as yours. can you please help me fix it.. thanks

2. Rana Usman says:

Hello, can you please guide me how did you manage to sort out the error because I am also facing the same one.

3. vivek p says:

i got the same error what to do?

1. cities.scores=score.sentiment(city.tweets\$text, hu.liu.pos, hu.liu.neg, .progress=’text’) – does this help?

4. Alec says:

I keep running into the rate limit. How did you get around that? Here is the warning message:
“In doRppAPICall(“search/tweets”, n, params = params, retryOnRateLimit = retryOnRateLimit, :
400 tweets were requested but the API can only return 399″

1. aschinchon says:

I had the same problem when I did it so I stored tweets during a few days to accumulate enough information to do my experiment.